When working on large-scale projects, clear documentation ensures that your code is easy to understand and maintain. Enter JSDoc: a powerful and flexible documentation generator for JavaScript. In this blog post, we'll explore the ins and outs of JSDoc and learn how to create beautiful and well-organized documentation for your JavaScript projects.

What is JSDoc?

JSDoc is an open-source documentation generator for JavaScript. It reads specially-formatted comments in your JavaScript code and generates a static HTML documentation site. JSDoc comments are easy to read and write and can provide a wealth of information about your code. By using JSDoc, you can:

  • Describe the purpose and usage of your functions, classes, and variables
  • Define the types of your function parameters and return values
  • Indicate default values and optional parameters
  • Automatically generate API documentation from your codebase
  • Improve code readability and maintainability

Getting Started with JSDoc

To get started with JSDoc, you first need to install it globally via npm or yarn:

npm install -g jsdoc


yarn global add jsdoc

Once JSDoc is installed, you can start adding JSDoc comments to your JavaScript code. JSDoc comments are similar to regular comments, but they begin with /** and include special tags that provide metadata about your code. Here's a simple example:

 * Adds two numbers together.
 * @param {number} a The first number.
 * @param {number} b The second number.
 * @return {number} The sum of a and b.
 * */
function add(a, b) {
  return a + b;

In this example, we've documented a simple add function using JSDoc. We've provided a brief description of the function, as well as information about its parameters and return value.

To generate the documentation for this code, save it in a file called example.js and run the following command:

jsdoc example.js

JSDoc will create an out directory containing the generated HTML documentation. Open out/index.html in your web browser to view the documentation.

JSDoc Tags

JSDoc supports a wide variety of tags that you can use to describe different aspects of your code. Some of the most commonly used tags include:

  • @param: Describes a function parameter
  • @return or @returns: Describes a function's return value
  • @class: Indicates that a function is a constructor (used to create instances of a class)
  • @extends: Indicates that a class inherits from another class
  • @module: Specifies that a file exports a module
  • @namespace: Describes a namespace object
  • @private: Indicates that a member is private and should not be documented
  • @public: Indicates that a member is public and should be documented
  • @type: Specifies the type of a variable or property

Here's a more complex example demonstrating the use of various JSDoc tags:

 * @module myMath
 * Represents a 2D vector.
 * @class
class Vector2 {
   * Creates a new vector.
   * @param {number} x The x component.
   * @param {number} y The y component.
  constructor(x, y) {
    this.x = x;
    this.y = y;
   * Adds another vector to this vector.
   * @param {Vector2} other The other vector.
   * @return {Vector2} The result of the addition.
  add(other) {
    return new Vector2(this.x + other.x, this.y + other.y);
module.exports = { Vector2 };

This example demonstrates the use of the @module, @class, @param, and @return tags to document a simple Vector2 class.

Customizing JSDoc Output

JSDoc allows you to customize the appearance and behavior of the generated documentation using configuration files and templates. To get started, create a jsdoc.json file in your project directory with the following contents:

  "source": {
    "includePattern": ".+\\.js(doc|x)?$",
    "excludePattern": "(^|\\/|\\\\)_"
  "opts": {
    "destination": "docs/",
    "encoding": "utf8",
    "private": false,
    "recurse": true,
    "template": "templates/default"

This configuration file specifies the input file patterns, output directory, and other options. You can find more information about the available options in the JSDoc configuration documentation.

JSDoc also supports custom templates to change the appearance of the generated documentation. You can find a variety of community-contributed templates on npm. To use a custom template, simply install it using npm or yarn and update the template option in your jsdoc.json file.

JSDoc Plugins and Integrations

JSDoc can be extended with plugins to add new features or improve compatibility with modern JavaScript syntax and features. Some popular JSDoc plugins include:

  • jsdoc-babel: Adds support for parsing modern JavaScript syntax with Babel
  • jsdoc-eslint: Integrates JSDoc with ESLint to enforce documentation standards
  • jsdoc-plugin-markdown: Generates Markdown documentation instead of HTML

To use a JSDoc plugin, install it via npm or yarn and add it to the plugins array in your jsdoc.json configuration file.

Best Practices

To make the most of JSDoc, follow these best practices:

  1. Be consistent: Consistency is key when it comes to documentation. Make sure to use the same format and style for all your JSDoc comments, and stick to a set of predefined tags to avoid confusion.
  2. Keep it up to date: Outdated or incorrect documentation can be worse than no documentation at all. Make sure to update your JSDoc comments whenever you modify your code to ensure that your documentation always reflects the current state of your codebase.
  3. Document everything: While it might be tempting to only document the most complex parts of your code, it's essential to document everything, including simple functions and variables. This makes it easier for others to understand and maintain your code, and it helps you remember the purpose and behavior of each component.
  4. Use descriptive names: Descriptive names for functions, classes, and variables make your code easier to understand and maintain, even without documentation. However, combining descriptive names with JSDoc comments can make your code virtually self-explanatory.
  5. Integrate with your build process: To ensure that your documentation is always up to date, integrate JSDoc into your build process. This way, your documentation will be automatically generated whenever you build your project.
  6. Automate documentation linting: Use tools like jsdoc-eslint to enforce JSDoc standards and conventions across your codebase. This can help you catch documentation issues before they become problems.
  7. Leverage custom templates and plugins: Customize your JSDoc output to match your project's needs and branding, and use plugins to extend JSDoc's functionality. This can make your documentation more appealing and easier to navigate.

JSDoc is a powerful and flexible tool for generating JavaScript documentation. By adding JSDoc comments to your code and using the right tags, templates, and plugins, you can create beautiful, well-organized documentation that makes your codebase easier to understand and maintain. By following best practices and integrating JSDoc into your development workflow, you can ensure that your documentation is always up to date and consistent across your entire project.

Take the time to explore JSDoc and its features, and consider adopting it for your JavaScript projects. With a well-documented codebase, you'll be well on your way to creating more maintainable and understandable software.